Language: Mandarin Chinese
Source: Classical literature

The Xiāoqíyíng (驍騎營) or "Valiant Cavalry" was the main contingent of the Manchu, Chinese, and Mongolian Banners.

Manchu: Aliha Cooha Küwaran

Organization Structure

According to Brunnert and Hagelstrom, 1911, the Xiāoqíyíng was structured in the following manner:1

  • 24 Commanders, Dūtǒng (都統).
    One for each banner.
    Manchu: Güsai Ejen
     
  • 48 Deputy Commanders, Fù Dūtǒng (副都統).
    Two for each banner.
    Manchu: Meiren i Janggin
     
  • 40 Adjudant-Generals, Yìnwù Cānlǐng (印務參領).
    Two for each banner, except the Mongol, one each.
     
  • 96 Colonels, Xiāoqí Cānlǐng (驍騎參領). Subdivision leaders.
    5 Manchu, 5 Chinese, 2 Mongol.
    Manchu: Jalan i Janggin
     
  • 96 Lieutenant-Colonels, Fù Xiāoqí Cānlǐng (副驍騎參領).
    One to each subdivision.
    Manchu: Ilhi Jalan i Janggin
     
  • 24 Adjudants, Yìnwù Zhāngjīng (印務章京). Correspondent.
    One for each banner.
    Manchu: Janggin
     
  • 24 Assistant-Adjudants, Wěi Yìnwù Zhāngjīng (委印務章京). Correspondent.
    One for each banner.
     
  • 800-960 Captains, Zuǒlǐng (佐領).
    70-80 Manchu, 30-40 Chinese. Leading 70-100 men each.
    Manchu: Niru Ejen
     
  • Lieutenants, Xiāoqí Xiào (驍騎校).
    Manchu: Juwan
     
  • Sub-Lieutenants, Wěishǔ Xiāoqí Xiào (委署驍騎校).
     
  • Corporals, Lǐngcuī (領崔).
    Manchu: Boşokü.
     
  • 1st Class Privates, Mǎjiǎ (馬甲) or Xiāoqí (驍騎).
    Manchu: Uksin.
     
  • 2nd Class Privates, Áoěrbù (敖爾布) or Lùjiǎo Bīng (鹿角兵) Chinese Banners only.
    Manchu: Orbo.
     

Equipment

According to the Regulations and precedents on military equipment of 1792, the Xiāoqíyíng had the following equipment:2

Eight Banners Manchu Valiant Cavalry

Banner Commanders
Deputy Commanders
Colonels
Hereditary ranks
Graded officers,

prepare for themselves the following military equipment:

-Dragon banner
-Helmet
-Armor
-Bow
-Arrows
-Quiver
-Waist saber

Captains Zuǒlǐng (佐領),
prepare for themselves the following military equipment:

-Helmet
-Armor
-Tent
-Long spear
-Marshall's banner
-Small banner
-Waist saber
-Bow
-Arrows
-Quiver
-Conch shell horn

Corporals Lǐngcuī (領崔)
Privates, Mǎjiǎ (馬甲),

prepare for themselves the following military equipment:
-Bow
-Arrows
-Waist saber


Eight Banners Mongolian Valiant Cavalry

Banner Commanders
Banner Deputy-Commanders
Lieutenant Colonels
Graded Officers,

prepare for themselves the following military equipment:

-Dragon banner
-Helmet
-Armour
-Bow
-Arrows
-Quiver
-Waist saber

Captains Zuǒlǐng (佐領),
prepare for themselves the following military equipment:

-Helmet
-Armor
-Tent
-Long spear
-Marshall's banner
-Small banner
-Waist saber
-Bow
-Arrows
-Quiver
-Conch shell horn

Corporals Lǐngcuī (領崔)
Privates, Mǎjiǎ (馬甲),

prepare for themselves the following military equipment:
-Bow
-Arrows
-Waist saber

Eight Banners Chinese Martial Valiant Cavalry

Musket Division
Cannon Division
Rattan Shield Division,

military equipment that is manufactured and repaired [by the state]:      

-Dragon banner
-"Capable" banner
-Dragon flag
-Division flag

-Numbered gong
-Numbered drum
-Conch shell horn

-Matchlock musket
-Shield saber (pái dāo 牌刀)

-Rattan shield
-Cannon chariot
-Deerhorn obstacle

-Bronze Cannon “The Great General of Unrivaled Divine Power”
-Nine Joints Ten Section Bronze Cannon
-Copper Ore Cannon
-Imperial Bronze Cannon “Fat General”
-Imperial Golden Dragon Bronze Cannon
-Bronze Cannon "The General of Divine Effectiveness”
-Bronze Cannon “The General of Divine Power”
-Travelling Army Iron Cannon
-Bronze Cannon “The Great General of Ever Strong Martial Accomplishment”
-Taiwanese Bronze Cannon
-Bronze Mortar
-Iron Mortar
-Bronze Cannon with Iron Core
-Iron Cannon Dressed in Red
-Iron Mother-and-son Cannon
-Bronze Cannon With Iron Core "The Conqueror"
-Long Distance Bronze Cannon
-Long Distance Iron Cannon
-Iron Cannon “Serious Power”
-Iron Signalling Cannon

Banner Commanders
Banner Deputy-Commanders
Lieutenant Colonels
Graded officers,

prepare for themselves the following military equipment:

-Helmet
-Armor
-Quiver
-Waist saber
-Bow
-Arrows

Captains Zuǒlǐng (佐領),
prepare for themselves the following military equipment:

-Helmet
-Armor
-Tent
-Long spear
-Marshall's banner
-Small banner
-Waist saber
-Quiver
-Bow
-Arrows
-Conch shell horn

Corporals Lǐngcuī (領崔)
Privates, Mǎjiǎ (馬甲),

prepare for themselves the following military equipment:

-Bow
-Arrows
-Waist saber
 

Notes
1. H.S. Brunnert and V.V. Hagelstrom; Present Day Political Organization of China. Published 1911. Pages 25-27.
2. Qīndìng Jūnqì Zélì (欽定軍器則例) "Regulations and precedents on military equipment", 56th year of Qianlong, corresponding to 1792.

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