Source: Period accounts
Glupa is an Acehnese word that is used to describe a golden crown that is present on some Acehnese swords and daggers.
They are most often encountered on straight, single-edged swords called sikin panjang and a peculiar form of dagger called rencong. Glupa are also found on sewar daggers.1
Weapons with such crowns were worn by men of prestige within the Sultanate of Aceh and the number of tiers on the crown represented the status of the owner. The Sultan of Aceh himself had four-tiered crowns on his arms, his lowest commanders, the panglima prang, had only one. Two and three-tiered crowns were worn by noblemen in between. Except for the Sultan's own weapons, the golden-crowned weapons were always presented by either the Sultan himself, or his uleebalang, to those deemed worthy.2
The glupa has a crown with rounded ends, while the puco has pointy ends.3
In historical sources
T.J. Veltman describes this element in detail in 1904. He does not make the distinction between glupa and puco, but provides some interesting background on the origin of the design elements.
According to him, originally the ornament was simple, as in plate XXII above. It was executed in brass and called reukoeëng roengiët, or sometimes called takoeë roengiët.
Reukoeëng means "throat", takoeë means "neck". Roengiët is a type of Sumatran capricorn beetle. Later the glupa was added, which would resemble half a coconut with the peel still on. Later still it was elongated by the poetjo or saroeë oelat, in the form of a pointy leaf.4
Veltman further notes that a sikin panjang could have either the poetjo, glupa, or both.
In old Dutch sources, it is often written as gloepa.
1. Albert van Zonneveld; Traditional weapons of the Indonesian archipelago. C. Zwartenkot Art Books, Leiden. Page 125.
2. Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, The Acehnese, E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1906.
3. Albert van Zonneveld; Traditional weapons of the Indonesian archipelago. C. Zwartenkot Art Books, Leiden. Page 125.
4. T.J. Veltman; Nota betreffende de Atjèhse goud- en zilversmeedkunst. Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde XLVII. 1904. Batavia, Albrecht & Co. 's Gravenhage, M. Nijhoff. Pages 360-362. I changed the spelling from the original words to accord to a more modern transcription.